Table 1

Baseline characteristics of the trial groups (mean ± sd or frequency and %)
Intervention Control p value Missing
N 34 38
Age of the mother at delivery (years) 28.7 (4.2) 29.1 (3.6) 0.65 1 -
Pre-pregnancy weight (kilograms) 64.2 (9.7) 61.7 (7.2) 0.22 1 3, 1
Pre-pregnancy BMI (kg/m2) 23.3 (3.4) 22.2 (2.1) 0.12 1 3, 1
Range 19.7 to 33.2 17.6 to 26.2
Pre-pregnancy BMI 0.17 4 3, 1
<25 (kg/m2) 24 (77.4%) 33 (89.2%)
25-29.9 4 (12.9%) 4 (10.8%)
30- 3 (9.7%) -
Gestational weight gain (kilograms) 13.6 (5.1) 14.1 (4.5) 0.69 1 3, 1
Weight gain recommendations during pregnancy 0.59 3 3, 1
Lower 11 (35.5%) 12 (32.4%)
At the range of the recommendations 9 (29.0%) 15 (40.6%)
Higher 11 (35.5%) 10 (27.0%)
Education 0.25 3 2, 0
Low 8 (25.0%) 11 (28.9%)
Medium 7 (21.9%) 3 (7.9%)
High 17 (53.1%) 24 (63.2%)
Employed 28 (84.8%) 30 (78.9%) 0.52 3 1, 0
Ever smokers 18 (54.5%) 18 (48.6%) 0.62 3 1, 1
Smoking during pregnancy 0 (0.0%) 2 (5.3%) 0.50 4 4, 0
Gestational age (days) 278.8 (10.7) 278.6 (8.4) 0.92 1 1, 1
Sex of the child – boy 16 (47.1%) 18 (47.4%) 0.98 3 -
Birthweight (grams) 3399 (313) 3388 (443) 0.91 1 -
Proportion of children with SGA 2 (6.1%) 5 (13.2%) 0.32 3 1, 0
Proportion of children with LGA 0 (0.0%) 0 (0.0%) - 1, 0
Macrosomia, birthweight > 4,000 g 0 (0.0%) 5 (13.2%) 0.056 4 -
Breastfeeding (no other nutrition) (months) 4.4 (1.6) 4.5 (1.7) 0.66 2 0, 1
Partial breastfeeding (months) 7.2 (5.7) 7.5 (6.0) 0.95 2 0, 1
Age of the child receiving solid foods (months) 5.0 (1.2) 5.0 (1.0) 0.90 1 0, 1

SGA small for gestational age, LGA large for gestational age, 1 Independent Samples T-test, 2 Mann–Whitney U-test, 3 Chi-Square Test, 4 Fisher’s Exact Test.

Mustila et al.

Mustila et al. Journal of Negative Results in BioMedicine 2012 11:11   doi:10.1186/1477-5751-11-11

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